WebEngine Quick Nano Browser

A web browser implemented using the WebEngineView QML type.

Quick Nano Browser demonstrates how to use the Qt WebEngine QML types to develop a small web browser application that consists of a browser window with a title bar, toolbar, tab view, and status bar. The web content is loaded in a web engine view within the tab view. If certificate errors occur, users are prompted for action in a message dialog. The status bar pops up to display the URL of a hovered link.

A web page can issue a request for being displayed in fullscreen mode. Users can allow full screen mode by using a toolbar button. They can leave fullscreen mode by using a keyboard shortcut. Additional toolbar buttons enable moving backwards and forwards in the browser history, reloading tab content, and opening a settings menu for enabling the following features: JavaScript, plugins, fullscreen mode, off the record, HTTP disk cache, autoloading images, and ignoring certificate errors.

Running the Example

To run the example from Qt Creator, open the Welcome mode and select the example from Examples. For more information, visit Building and Running an Example.

Creating the Main Browser Window

When the browser main window is loaded, it creates an empty tab using the default profile. Each tab is a web engine view that fills the main window.

We create the main window in the BrowserWindow.qml file using the ApplicationWindow type:

 ApplicationWindow {
     id: browserWindow
     property QtObject applicationRoot
     property Item currentWebView: tabs.currentIndex < tabs.count ? tabs.getTab(tabs.currentIndex).item : null
     width: 1300
     height: 900
     visible: true
     title: currentWebView && currentWebView.title

We use the TabView Qt Quick control to create an empty tab view that fills the main window. We set the tab active first, to make sure that the tab item is immediately instantiated:

     TabView {
         id: tabs
         function createEmptyTab(profile) {
             var tab = addTab("", tabComponent);
             // We must do this first to make sure that tab.active gets set so that tab.item gets instantiated immediately.
             tab.active = true;
             tab.title = Qt.binding(function() { return tab.item.title ? tab.item.title : 'New Tab' });
             tab.item.profile = profile;
             return tab;

         function indexOfView(view) {
             for (let i = 0; i < tabs.count; ++i)
                 if (tabs.getTab(i).item == view)
                     return i
             return -1

         function removeView(index) {
             if (tabs.count > 1)

         anchors.top: parent.top
         anchors.bottom: devToolsView.top
         anchors.left: parent.left
         anchors.right: parent.right
         Component.onCompleted: createEmptyTab(defaultProfile)

The tab contains a web engine view that loads web content:

         // Add custom tab view style so we can customize the tabs to include a close button
         style: TabViewStyle {
             property color frameColor: "#999"
             property color fillColor: "#eee"
             property color nonSelectedColor: "#ddd"
             frameOverlap: 1
             frame: Rectangle {
                 color: "#eee"
                 border.color: frameColor
             tab: Rectangle {
                 id: tabRectangle
                 color: styleData.selected ? fillColor : nonSelectedColor
                 border.width: 1
                 border.color: frameColor
                 implicitWidth: Math.max(text.width + 30, 80)
                 implicitHeight: Math.max(text.height + 10, 20)
                 Rectangle { height: 1 ; width: parent.width ; color: frameColor}
                 Rectangle { height: parent.height ; width: 1; color: frameColor}
                 Rectangle { x: parent.width - 2; height: parent.height ; width: 1; color: frameColor}
                 Text {
                     id: text
                     anchors.left: parent.left
                     anchors.verticalCenter: parent.verticalCenter
                     anchors.leftMargin: 6
                     text: styleData.title
                     elide: Text.ElideRight
                     color: styleData.selected ? "black" : frameColor
                 Button {
                     anchors.right: parent.right
                     anchors.verticalCenter: parent.verticalCenter
                     anchors.rightMargin: 4
                     height: 12
                     style: ButtonStyle {
                         background: Rectangle {
                             implicitWidth: 12
                             implicitHeight: 12
                             color: control.hovered ? "#ccc" : tabRectangle.color
                             Text {text: "x" ; anchors.centerIn: parent ; color: "gray"}
                     onClicked: tabs.removeView(styleData.index)

         Component {
             id: tabComponent
             WebEngineView {
                 id: webEngineView
                 focus: true

We use the Action type to create new tabs:

     Action {
         shortcut: StandardKey.AddTab
         onTriggered: {
             tabs.createEmptyTab(tabs.count != 0 ? currentWebView.profile : defaultProfile);
             tabs.currentIndex = tabs.count - 1;

We use the TextField Qt Quick Control within a ToolBar to create an address bar that shows the current URL and where users can enter another URL:

     toolBar: ToolBar {
         id: navigationBar
             RowLayout {
                 anchors.fill: parent
                 TextField {
                     id: addressBar
                     focus: true
                     Layout.fillWidth: true
                     text: currentWebView && currentWebView.url
                     onAccepted: currentWebView.url = utils.fromUserInput(text)

Handling Certificate Errors

If the certificate of the site being loaded triggers a certificate error, we call the defer() QML method to pause the URL request and wait for user input:

                 onCertificateError: function(error) {

We use the MessageDialog type to prompt users to continue or cancel the loading of the web page. If users select Yes, we call the ignoreCertificateError() method to ignore the error and continue loading content from the URL. If users select No, we call the rejectCertificate() method to reject the request and stop loading content from the URL:

     MessageDialog {
         id: sslDialog

         property var certErrors: []
         icon: StandardIcon.Warning
         standardButtons: StandardButton.No | StandardButton.Yes
         title: "Server's certificate not trusted"
         text: "Do you wish to continue?"
         detailedText: "If you wish so, you may continue with an unverified certificate. " +
                       "Accepting an unverified certificate means " +
                       "you may not be connected with the host you tried to connect to.\n" +
                       "Do you wish to override the security check and continue?"
         onYes: {
         onNo: reject()
         onRejected: reject()

         function reject(){
         function enqueue(error){
         function presentError(){
             visible = certErrors.length > 0

Entering and Leaving Fullscreen Mode

We create a menu item for allowing fullscreen mode in a settings menu that we place on the tool bar. Also, we create an action for leaving fullscreen mode by using a keyboard shortcut. We call the accept() method to accept the fullscreen request. The methdod sets the isFullScreen property to be equal to the toggleOn property.

                 onFullScreenRequested: function(request) {
                     if (request.toggleOn) {
                         webEngineView.state = "FullScreen";
                         browserWindow.previousVisibility = browserWindow.visibility;
                     } else {
                         webEngineView.state = "";
                         browserWindow.visibility = browserWindow.previousVisibility;

When entering fullscreen mode, we display a notification using the FullScreenNotification custom type that we create in FullScreenNotification.qml.

We use the Action type in the settings menu to create a shortcut for leaving fullscreen mode by pressing the escape key:

     Settings {
         id : appSettings
         property alias fullScreenSupportEnabled: fullScreenSupportEnabled.checked
         property alias autoLoadIconsForPage: autoLoadIconsForPage.checked
         property alias touchIconsEnabled: touchIconsEnabled.checked
         property alias webRTCPublicInterfacesOnly : webRTCPublicInterfacesOnly.checked
         property alias devToolsEnabled: devToolsEnabled.checked
         property alias pdfViewerEnabled: pdfViewerEnabled.checked

     Action {
         shortcut: "Escape"
         onTriggered: {
             if (currentWebView.state == "FullScreen") {
                 browserWindow.visibility = browserWindow.previousVisibility;

             if (findBar.visible)
                 findBar.visible = false;

Files and Attributions

The example uses icons from the Tango Icon Library:

Tango Icon LibraryPublic Domain

Example project @ code.qt.io