eulerangles
¶
Module implementing Euler angle rotations and their conversions
See:
See also: Representing Attitude with Euler Angles and Quaternions: A Reference (2006) by James Diebel. A cached PDF link last found here:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.110.5134
Euler’s rotation theorem tells us that any rotation in 3D can be described by 3 angles. Let’s call the 3 angles the Euler angle vector and call the angles in the vector \(alpha\), \(beta\) and \(gamma\). The vector is [ \(alpha\), \(beta\). \(gamma\) ] and, in this description, the order of the parameters specifies the order in which the rotations occur (so the rotation corresponding to \(alpha\) is applied first).
In order to specify the meaning of an Euler angle vector we need to specify the axes around which each of the rotations corresponding to \(alpha\), \(beta\) and \(gamma\) will occur.
There are therefore three axes for the rotations \(alpha\), \(beta\) and \(gamma\); let’s call them \(i\) \(j\), \(k\).
Let us express the rotation \(alpha\) around axis i as a 3 by 3 rotation matrix A. Similarly \(beta\) around j becomes 3 x 3 matrix B and \(gamma\) around k becomes matrix G. Then the whole rotation expressed by the Euler angle vector [ \(alpha\), \(beta\). \(gamma\) ], R is given by:
R = np.dot(G, np.dot(B, A))
See http://mathworld.wolfram.com/EulerAngles.html
The order \(G B A\) expresses the fact that the rotations are performed in the order of the vector (\(alpha\) around axis i = A first).
To convert a given Euler angle vector to a meaningful rotation, and a rotation matrix, we need to define:
the axes i, j, k
whether a rotation matrix should be applied on the left of a vector to be transformed (vectors are column vectors) or on the right (vectors are row vectors).
whether the rotations move the axes as they are applied (intrinsic rotations)  compared the situation where the axes stay fixed and the vectors move within the axis frame (extrinsic)
the handedness of the coordinate system
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotation_matrix#Ambiguities
We are using the following conventions:
axes i, j, k are the z, y, and x axes respectively. Thus an Euler angle vector [ \(alpha\), \(beta\). \(gamma\) ] in our convention implies a \(alpha\) radian rotation around the z axis, followed by a \(beta\) rotation around the y axis, followed by a \(gamma\) rotation around the x axis.
the rotation matrix applies on the left, to column vectors on the right, so if R is the rotation matrix, and v is a 3 x N matrix with N column vectors, the transformed vector set vdash is given by
vdash = np.dot(R, v)
.extrinsic rotations  the axes are fixed, and do not move with the rotations.
a righthanded coordinate system
The convention of rotation around z
, followed by rotation around
y
, followed by rotation around x
, is known (confusingly) as
“xyz”, pitchrollyaw, Cardan angles, or TaitBryan angles.

Convert angle, axis pair to Euler angles 

Return angle, axis corresponding to these Euler angles 

Return matrix for rotations around z, y and x axes 

Return quaternion corresponding to these Euler angles 

Discover Euler angle vector from 3x3 matrix 

Return Euler angles corresponding to quaternion q 
angle_axis2euler¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
angle_axis2euler
(theta, vector, is_normalized=False)¶ Convert angle, axis pair to Euler angles
 Parameters
 thetascalar
angle of rotation
 vector3 element sequence
vector specifying axis for rotation.
 is_normalizedbool, optional
True if vector is already normalized (has norm of 1). Default False
 Returns
 zscalar
 yscalar
 xscalar
Rotations in radians around z, y, x axes, respectively
Notes
It’s possible to reduce the amount of calculation a little, by combining parts of the
angle_axis2mat
andmat2euler
functions, but the reduction in computation is small, and the code repetition is large.Examples
>>> z, y, x = angle_axis2euler(0, [1, 0, 0]) >>> np.allclose((z, y, x), 0) True
euler2angle_axis¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
euler2angle_axis
(z=0, y=0, x=0)¶ Return angle, axis corresponding to these Euler angles
Uses the z, then y, then x convention above
 Parameters
 zscalar
Rotation angle in radians around zaxis (performed first)
 yscalar
Rotation angle in radians around yaxis
 xscalar
Rotation angle in radians around xaxis (performed last)
 Returns
 thetascalar
angle of rotation
 vectorarray shape (3,)
axis around which rotation occurs
Examples
>>> theta, vec = euler2angle_axis(0, 1.5, 0) >>> print(theta) 1.5 >>> np.allclose(vec, [0, 1, 0]) True
euler2mat¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
euler2mat
(z=0, y=0, x=0)¶ Return matrix for rotations around z, y and x axes
Uses the z, then y, then x convention above
 Parameters
 zscalar
Rotation angle in radians around zaxis (performed first)
 yscalar
Rotation angle in radians around yaxis
 xscalar
Rotation angle in radians around xaxis (performed last)
 Returns
 Marray shape (3,3)
Rotation matrix giving same rotation as for given angles
Notes
The direction of rotation is given by the righthand rule (orient the thumb of the right hand along the axis around which the rotation occurs, with the end of the thumb at the positive end of the axis; curl your fingers; the direction your fingers curl is the direction of rotation). Therefore, the rotations are counterclockwise if looking along the axis of rotation from positive to negative.
Examples
>>> zrot = 1.3 # radians >>> yrot = 0.1 >>> xrot = 0.2 >>> M = euler2mat(zrot, yrot, xrot) >>> M.shape == (3, 3) True
The output rotation matrix is equal to the composition of the individual rotations
>>> M1 = euler2mat(zrot) >>> M2 = euler2mat(0, yrot) >>> M3 = euler2mat(0, 0, xrot) >>> composed_M = np.dot(M3, np.dot(M2, M1)) >>> np.allclose(M, composed_M) True
You can specify rotations by named arguments
>>> np.all(M3 == euler2mat(x=xrot)) True
When applying M to a vector, the vector should column vector to the right of M. If the right hand side is a 2D array rather than a vector, then each column of the 2D array represents a vector.
>>> vec = np.array([1, 0, 0]).reshape((3,1)) >>> v2 = np.dot(M, vec) >>> vecs = np.array([[1, 0, 0],[0, 1, 0]]).T # giving 3x2 array >>> vecs2 = np.dot(M, vecs)
Rotations are counterclockwise.
>>> zred = np.dot(euler2mat(z=np.pi/2), np.eye(3)) >>> np.allclose(zred, [[0, 1, 0],[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1]]) True >>> yred = np.dot(euler2mat(y=np.pi/2), np.eye(3)) >>> np.allclose(yred, [[0, 0, 1],[0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0]]) True >>> xred = np.dot(euler2mat(x=np.pi/2), np.eye(3)) >>> np.allclose(xred, [[1, 0, 0],[0, 0, 1], [0, 1, 0]]) True
euler2quat¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
euler2quat
(z=0, y=0, x=0)¶ Return quaternion corresponding to these Euler angles
Uses the z, then y, then x convention above
 Parameters
 zscalar
Rotation angle in radians around zaxis (performed first)
 yscalar
Rotation angle in radians around yaxis
 xscalar
Rotation angle in radians around xaxis (performed last)
 Returns
 quatarray shape (4,)
Quaternion in w, x, y z (real, then vector) format
Notes
We can derive this formula in Sympy using:
Formula giving quaternion corresponding to rotation of theta radians about arbitrary axis: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/EulerParameters.html
Generated formulae from 1.) for quaternions corresponding to theta radians rotations about
x, y, z
axesApply quaternion multiplication formula  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternions#Hamilton_product  to formulae from 2.) to give formula for combined rotations.
mat2euler¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
mat2euler
(M, cy_thresh=None)¶ Discover Euler angle vector from 3x3 matrix
Uses the conventions above.
 Parameters
 Marraylike, shape (3,3)
 cy_threshNone or scalar, optional
threshold below which to give up on straightforward arctan for estimating x rotation. If None (default), estimate from precision of input.
 Returns
 zscalar
 yscalar
 xscalar
Rotations in radians around z, y, x axes, respectively
Notes
If there was no numerical error, the routine could be derived using Sympy expression for z then y then x rotation matrix, which is:
[ cos(y)*cos(z), cos(y)*sin(z), sin(y)], [cos(x)*sin(z) + cos(z)*sin(x)*sin(y), cos(x)*cos(z)  sin(x)*sin(y)*sin(z), cos(y)*sin(x)], [sin(x)*sin(z)  cos(x)*cos(z)*sin(y), cos(z)*sin(x) + cos(x)*sin(y)*sin(z), cos(x)*cos(y)]
with the obvious derivations for z, y, and x
z = atan2(r12, r11) y = asin(r13) x = atan2(r23, r33)
Problems arise when cos(y) is close to zero, because both of:
z = atan2(cos(y)*sin(z), cos(y)*cos(z)) x = atan2(cos(y)*sin(x), cos(x)*cos(y))
will be close to atan2(0, 0), and highly unstable.
The
cy
fix for numerical instability below is from: Graphics Gems IV, Paul Heckbert (editor), Academic Press, 1994, ISBN: 0123361559. Specifically it comes from EulerAngles.c by Ken Shoemake, and deals with the case where cos(y) is close to zero:See: http://www.graphicsgems.org/
The code appears to be licensed (from the website) as “can be used without restrictions”.
quat2euler¶

nibabel.eulerangles.
quat2euler
(q)¶ Return Euler angles corresponding to quaternion q
 Parameters
 q4 element sequence
w, x, y, z of quaternion
 Returns
 zscalar
Rotation angle in radians around zaxis (performed first)
 yscalar
Rotation angle in radians around yaxis
 xscalar
Rotation angle in radians around xaxis (performed last)
Notes
It’s possible to reduce the amount of calculation a little, by combining parts of the
quat2mat
andmat2euler
functions, but the reduction in computation is small, and the code repetition is large.