Danger

This is a “Hazardous Materials” module. You should ONLY use it if you’re 100% absolutely sure that you know what you’re doing because this module is full of land mines, dragons, and dinosaurs with laser guns.

X25519 key exchange

X25519 is an elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman key exchange using Curve25519. It allows two parties to jointly agree on a shared secret using an insecure channel.

Exchange Algorithm

For most applications the shared_key should be passed to a key derivation function. This allows mixing of additional information into the key, derivation of multiple keys, and destroys any structure that may be present.

>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import hashes
>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519 import X25519PrivateKey
>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.hkdf import HKDF
>>> # Generate a private key for use in the exchange.
>>> private_key = X25519PrivateKey.generate()
>>> # In a real handshake the peer_public_key will be received from the
>>> # other party. For this example we'll generate another private key and
>>> # get a public key from that. Note that in a DH handshake both peers
>>> # must agree on a common set of parameters.
>>> peer_public_key = X25519PrivateKey.generate().public_key()
>>> shared_key = private_key.exchange(peer_public_key)
>>> # Perform key derivation.
>>> derived_key = HKDF(
...     algorithm=hashes.SHA256(),
...     length=32,
...     salt=None,
...     info=b'handshake data',
... ).derive(shared_key)
>>> # For the next handshake we MUST generate another private key.
>>> private_key_2 = X25519PrivateKey.generate()
>>> peer_public_key_2 = X25519PrivateKey.generate().public_key()
>>> shared_key_2 = private_key_2.exchange(peer_public_key_2)
>>> derived_key_2 = HKDF(
...     algorithm=hashes.SHA256(),
...     length=32,
...     salt=None,
...     info=b'handshake data',
... ).derive(shared_key_2)

Key interfaces

class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519.X25519PrivateKey

New in version 2.0.

classmethod generate()

Generate an X25519 private key.

Returns

X25519PrivateKey

classmethod from_private_bytes(data)

New in version 2.5.

A class method for loading an X25519 key encoded as Raw.

Parameters

data (bytes) – 32 byte private key.

Returns

X25519PrivateKey

>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import serialization
>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import x25519
>>> private_key = x25519.X25519PrivateKey.generate()
>>> private_bytes = private_key.private_bytes(
...     encoding=serialization.Encoding.Raw,
...     format=serialization.PrivateFormat.Raw,
...     encryption_algorithm=serialization.NoEncryption()
... )
>>> loaded_private_key = x25519.X25519PrivateKey.from_private_bytes(private_bytes)
public_key()
Returns

X25519PublicKey

exchange(peer_public_key)
Parameters

peer_public_key (X25519PublicKey) – The public key for the peer.

Returns bytes

A shared key.

private_bytes(encoding, format, encryption_algorithm)

New in version 2.5.

Allows serialization of the key to bytes. Encoding ( PEM, DER, or Raw) and format ( PKCS8 or Raw ) are chosen to define the exact serialization.

Parameters
Return bytes

Serialized key.

class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519.X25519PublicKey

New in version 2.0.

classmethod from_public_bytes(data)
Parameters

data (bytes) – 32 byte public key.

Returns

X25519PublicKey

>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import x25519
>>> private_key = x25519.X25519PrivateKey.generate()
>>> public_key = private_key.public_key()
>>> public_bytes = public_key.public_bytes(
...     encoding=serialization.Encoding.Raw,
...     format=serialization.PublicFormat.Raw
... )
>>> loaded_public_key = x25519.X25519PublicKey.from_public_bytes(public_bytes)
public_bytes(encoding, format)

Allows serialization of the key to bytes. Encoding ( PEM, DER, or Raw) and format ( SubjectPublicKeyInfo or Raw ) are chosen to define the exact serialization.

Parameters
Returns bytes

The public key bytes.