Conventions Used in This Book
is used for the names of all UNIX utilities, switches,
directories, and filenames and to emphasize new terms and
concepts when they are first introduced.
is used occasionally within text to make words easy to find --
just like movie stars' names in the People section of your local
newspaper. For example, it is used with line numbers in the
descriptions of files and programs.
(constant width) is used for sample code fragments and examples.
A reference in text to a word or item used in an example or code
fragment is also shown in teletype font.
is used in examples to show commands or text that would be typed
in literally by the user.
Teletype Bold Italic
are used in code fragments and examples to show variables for
which a context-specific substitution should be made. (The
variable filename, for example, would be
replaced by some actual filename.) Constant italic is also used
to highlight line numbers in examples
(like 12>). These line numbers are not part
of the file; they are for reference only.
is a reference to a manual page in Section n of the UNIX
programmer's manual. For example,
mh-format(5) refers to a page called mh-format in
is the C shell prompt.
is the Bourne shell prompt.
stands for text (usually computer output) that's been omitted
for clarity or to save space.
is an "electronic smiley face," a convention in electronic
communication. It means "don't take that seriously."
stands for a control character. To create CTRL-D, for example,
hold down the Control key and press the "d" key. Control
characters are not case sensitive; "d" refers to both the
uppercase and lowercase letter. Control characters are also
shown with a caret (^) and the letter, as
stands for a Meta character. Meta characters are written as
follows: if the character is a lowercase letter, the meta
character will appear as META-C. If the character is an
uppercase letter, the meta character will appear as
META-SHIFT-C. To create META-C, for example, hold down the
"Meta" key and press the "c" key. To make the META-SHIFT-C
character, hold down both the "Meta" key and the SHIFT (shift)
key and press the "c" key. The Meta key isn't always labeled
"Meta". If your keyboard doesn't have Meta keys, try using a
xmodmap(1) to redefine some other key -- or use another
command to do what you need.